Amendments in The Indian Constitution
86th Amendment of the Indian Constitution in December 2002 Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen
This amendment talks about the right to education until the age of fourteen. Prior, there wasn’t any change to help perceive the requirement for the right to education of children. With the 86th Amendment to the Constitution of India, free and obligatory education for the children between 6 to 14 was made as a fundamental right. Another article 21A was embedded underneath the Article 21 of the 86th Amendment in the year 2002 to make this a right. Under this change, no student is subject to pay any sort of expense for education below 14 years of age.
101st Amendment (2016)- Introduction of GST
The 101st amendment, the Goods and Service Tax was presented in India on July 1, 2017. This amendment contains the arrangements which are vital for the usage of GST administration. All other taxes were expelled. All taxes which are now levied while buying products will incorporate both the central government’s expenses and the state government’s charges. The presentation of GST has prevented the state governments from arbitrarily increasing the charges.
61st Amendment- Voting Rights
61st amendment of Article 326 under the Prime Ministership of Rajiv Gandhi brought down the age of voting in elections to the Lok Sabha and to the Legislative Assemblies of States from 21 years to 18 years. This was finished by revising Article 326 of the Constitution, which is concerned with the elections.
Article 326 of the Constitution, after the 61st Amendment states-
“Article 326 of the Constitution provides that the elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assembly of every State… The present-day youth are very much politically conscious. It is, therefore, proposed to reduce the voting age from 21 years to 18 years.”
95th amendment- Reservation of seats for SC/ST
95th amendment of Article 334 in January 2010 under the Prime Ministership of Dr. Manmohan Singh. stretched the time of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies for an additional period of ten years. The time period is now extended up to 26 January 2020. It was presented by the Minister of Law and Justice. He looked forward to altering the article 334 of the Constitution identifying with reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled in the Legislative Assemblies of the States. The 95th Amendment finally happened on 25 January 2010.
100th amendment of the first schedule of the Indian Constitution under Prime Minister Narendra Modi sanctioned the land limit agreement between India and Bangladesh. The amendment corrected the first schedule of the constitution to trade the domains of debate of both the countries. India got 51 Bangladeshi enclaves) in the Indian territory, while Bangladesh got 111 Indian enclaves in the Bangladeshi terrain. The India Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement was marked between the two nations in 1974. Nonetheless, this assertion required approval from the parliaments of the two countries as it included the trade of the lands. While Bangladesh had sanctioned it as back as 1974, it was not approved by Indian parliament till 2015.
36th amendment occurred in 1975 whereby it was chosen to incorporate Sikkim as a state in the Indian association. The extraordinary thing about Sikkim is, it was the first province of Indian Union. There was no such ideology before 1974 in our constitution. So 35th amendment was made to include Article 2A, making Sikkim a partner territory of India on September 1974. Furthermore, Article 371F was added to secure the laws of Sikkim, alongside other little revisions.
37th amendment of articles 239A and 240 of the constitution in 1975 prompted the arrangement of Arunachal Pradesh as a legislative assembly.
38th amendment of articles 123, 352, 356, 359 and 360 under the Prime Ministership of Indira Gandhi enhanced the powers of the President and Governors to pass various mandates. Article 123 enables the President to proclaim ordinances when both the Houses of Parliament are not in session. Article 352 engages the President to announce emergency on the off chance that the security of India is at stake or is debilitated by war. Article 356 engages the President to assume the elements of the Government of a State if the sacred apparatus in any State falls flat and the Government in the State can’t be continued. In like manner article 360 engages the President to pronounce Financial Emergency on the off chance that he is fulfilled that the budgetary strength of the country is weakened.
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