Introduction to the Constitution Of India
Have you ever wondered about something which is not usual? India is the most amazing country in the World. There are lots of mind-blowing facts about India which are not yet popular and known to all people. India is a large country in terms of population and land. So, it is difficult for every people to discover mind-blowing facts of the country.
India is the largest democracy in the world and on the 26th of January 2016 the constitution of India, which has seen various amendments and changes been done over the years, will complete 66 years of democracy and sovereignty.
So here are some of the laws and rights prescribed by the Indian constitution about which a lot of us are unaware of.
1. THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION IS THE LARGEST IN THE WORLD
Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted. The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 444 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 118 amendments, with 146,385 words in its English-language version.
2. A TOTAL OF 283 MEMBERS OF THE CONSTITUTION ASSEMBLY SIGNED THE CONSTITUION
After a meeting of different committees, a drafting committee was formed under the chairmanship of Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar, the chief architect of the Constitution of India. Thereafter, the committee had prepared a draft constitution and submitted it to the Assembly on November 1947, but it took more than two to give it the final touch amid debates and amendments. Finally, on 26 November 1949, the process was completed and the Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution.
3. THE ORIGINAL HAND WRITTEN COPIES OF THE CONSTITUTION ARE KEPT IN HELIUM-FILLED CASES IN THE LIBRARY OF THE PARLIAMENT HOUSE
This book is one of 1,000 photolithographic reproductions of the Constitution of the Republic of India. The illustrations represent styles from the different civilizations of the subcontinent, ranging from the prehistoric Mohenjodaro, in the Indus Valley, to the present. The calligraphy in the book was done by Prem Behari Narain Raizda. It was illuminated by Nandalal Bose and other artists, published by Dehra Dun, and photolithographed at the Survey of India Offices.
4. THE CONCEPT OF THE FIVE YEAR PLAN (FYP) WAS TAKEN FROM THE USSR
Five-Year Plans (FYPs) are centralized and integrated national economic programs. Joseph Stalin implemented the first Five Year Plan in the Soviet Union in the late 1920s. Most communist states and several capitalist countries subsequently have adopted them. The First Five-Year Plan was one of the most important because it had a great role in the launching of Indian development after the Independence.
5. THE PREAMBLE TO OUR CONSTITUTION WAS INSPIRED BY THE PREAMBLE TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
One principle of government that is reflected in both constitutions is popular sovereignty. A quote from the Constitution of India that depicts popular sovereignty is “We, the people of India… in our constituent assembly… do here by adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution.” This quote shows that the ultimate power lies with the people and they are the main source of power of the constitution. This principle is reinforced as elections to the House of the People (Lok Sabha) and the Legislative Assembly of every state will be decided on the basis of adult suffrage.
6. THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS RECOGNIZED BY OUR CONSTITUTION HAS ALSO BEEN ADOPTED FROM THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION
The Indian Constitution recognizes nine fundamental rights as the basic human rights of all its citizens. There are many similarities between the two constitutions of India and the United States of America. Some similarities involve the principles that these two constitutions share. There are many principles of government reflected in the Constitution of India and the United States Constitution.
7. THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION IS ONE OF THE WORLD’S BEST CONSTITUTION
In 62 years of its adoption, it had been amended only 94 times. As of now, our Constitution has undergone a total of 118 amendments.
8. ARREST DO HAPPEN AS SHOWN IN MOVIES AND OTHER SITCOMS
No arrest can be made because an officer has the power to do so. The police officer must be able to justify the arrest. People in custody have the right to inform about the arrest to their relatives and the police is duty-bound to provide facilities for the same.
- The right to be informed of the grounds of arrest. This is necessary so that he may prepare his defense.
- The right to consult and be defended by a lawyer of his choice. In India, the court is not duty-bound to employ a lawyer unless a request is made.
- The right to be produced before a magistrate within 24 hours. This can be extended only under a judicial order.
- The freedom from illegal detention. No accused can be detained beyond 24 hours except by the order of the magistrate.
9. THERE ARE 2.18 CRORE CASES PENDING IN INDIA’S DISTRICT AND LOWER COURTS
There are more than 2 crore cases pending in district courts across the country; 12 states have more than 5 lakh cases to decide; while a little more than one case, on an average, is awaiting conclusion for at least 10 years. Of the total pending cases, more than 20 lakh — almost 10 per cent — have been filed by women while over 3 per cent are being fought by senior citizens.
10. 22.2 MILLION PEOPLE ARE UNDER TRIAL IN INDIA, FAR MORE THAN THERE ARE PEOPLE IN THE NETHERLANDS
For the 13 years the Salman Khan hit-and-run case was in trial, it was one of 18.5 million criminal cases pending in India’s district and lower courts, and the 50-year-old Bollywood star was one of 22.2 million people under trial. Driven by a shortage of prosecutors, judges and courts and—among other reasons—slow procedures; there are more people under trial in India than there are people in the Netherlands or Kazakhstan.
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