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Legopedia

High Courts in India

list of high courts in india

Introduction

The present article is about the superior or supreme court in a state, generally, called the High court. The High Court usually refers to the superior court of a state. India has a cohesive judiciary system as we all know, and the Supreme Court is the apex court situated in New Delhi. The High Court is the supreme judicial body in a state, and According to Article 214 of the constitution of India, each state of India must have a High Court, and It is considered as the final interpreter of the constitution.

There is the total number of High Courts is 25 at the state and union level of India which, together, with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprises the judicial system of the nation. Every High court or as we can say each High Court has jurisdiction over a state, a union territory or a group of states and groups of union territories. Below the High, Court is a hierarchy of subordinate courts like the civil courts, family courts, criminal courts, and various other types of district courts. All the High Courts are instituted as the constitutional courts under Part VI, Chapter V, Article 214 of the Constitution of India. Each and every High Courts are the principal civil courts of original jurisdiction in each state and union territories. That is why, a High Court exercises its original civil and criminal jurisdiction only if the lower courts are not authorized by law to try such kind of matters for lack of pecuniary (monetary), territorial jurisdiction. Some time High courts also enjoy the original jurisdiction in certain matters if so designated specifically in a state or federal law.

There are 25 High Courts in India, three of the High Court having control over more than one State. Delhi has a High Court of its own among the Union Territories. Each High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other judges appointed by the President of India. From 1st January 2019 Separate High Courts will start functioning for the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. The High Court for Telangana becomes the 25th High Court in the country. As we all aware of the fact that state Telangana was carved out of Andra Pradesh in the year  2014 and the two states continued to have a common high court in the city of Hyderabad. Each High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other judges appointed by the President of India.

Appointment of the Judges of High Courts in India: –

Though, Each High Court is headed by their respective Chief Justice of that Court who is appointed by the President with the consultation of the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the State. And the other respective judges are appointed by the will of President, Governor and the Chief Justice of respective High Court.

Qualifications of the Judges (High Court): –

(a) Must be a citizen of India.

(b) Must have been: –

(i) A judge for 10 years of any Subordinate court under the Judicial Service of the State or
(ii) A practicing Advocate for 10 years in High Courts in India (mentioned under article 217 of the Indian Constitution).

Tenure of Judges (High Court): –

Originally the age of the retirement age of the judges of the High Courts was decided at 60, but it was raised to 62 in the year 1963 in accordance with the 15th constitutional amendment of the Constitution

A judge may leave his office by resigning. Addressing that resigning letter to the President of India. Also, a judge of High Court may be removed by the President of India if the Parliament passes a motion against him by an absolute majority and 2/3rd majority of the members present and voting, both the Houses sitting separately on the ground that the judges go against the principles of the Constitution or violate the constitution.

The Calcutta High court is the oldest high court in the country, which established on 2 July 1862. Some of the High courts handle a large number of cases of a particular region like Uttar Pradesh or Madhya Pradesh etc., have their permanent benches established there. Benches are also present in some states which come under the jurisdiction of a court outside its territorial limits. And in contrast, smaller states which have few cases to deal with may have their circuit benches established. Circuit benches (also, known as circuit courts in some parts of the world) defined as the temporary courts which hold proceedings for a few selected months in a year. In India, according to a study, on 21 high courts in collaboration with the Ministry of Law and Justice, it was found that the average pendency of a case in high courts in India is 3 years.

High Courts: –

The High court of Madras in Chennai, The High court of Bombay in Mumbai, The High Court of Calcutta in Kolkata and The High Court of Allahabad in Prayagraj are the oldest four high courts in India. The list of 25 High Courts in chronological order (alphabetically) is as follows: –

1. Allahabad High Court: –

Established in the year 1866 by the Indian High Courts Act, 1861.

Jurisdiction- Uttar Pradesh, Principle Seat- Prayagraj, Bench- Lucknow

The Allahabad High court Original established in Agra and in the year 1875 it shifted to Allahabad.

2. Andhra Pradesh High court: –

Established recently in the year 2019 by the Andra Pradesh state reorganization Act, 2014.

Jurisdiction- Andhra Pradesh, Seat- Amravati.

3. Bombay High Court: –

Established in the year 1862 by the Indian High Courts Act, 1861.

Jurisdiction- Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Principle Bench- Mumbai, Bench- Panji, Nagpur, Aurangabad.

4. Calcutta High Court: –

Established in the year 1862 by the Indian High Courts Act, 1861.

Jurisdiction- West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Island, Principle Seat- Kolkata, Bench- Port Blair, Jalpaiguri.

5. Chattisgarh High Court: –

Established in the year 2000 by the Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2000

Jurisdiction: – Chattisgarh, Principle Seat: – Bilaspur

6. Delhi High Court: –

Established in the year 1966 by the Delhi High Court, 1966.

Jurisdiction: – National Capital Territory of Delhi, Principal Seat: – New Delhi.

7. Gauhati High Court: –

Established in the year 1948 by the Government of India Act, 1935.

Jurisdiction: – Arunachal Pradesh, Asam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Principle Seat: – Guwahati, bench- Aizawal, Itanagar, Kohima

The High Court discussed above originally called as the High Court of Asam and Nagaland and it was renamed as Gauhati High Court in the year 1971. 

8. Gujrat High Court: –

Established in the year 1960 by the Bombay Reorganization Act, 1960.

Jurisdiction- Gujrat, Principle Bench- Ahmedabad.

9. Himachal Pradesh High Court: –

Established in the year 1971 by the Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970.

Jurisdiction: – Himachal Pradesh, Principle Bench:- Shimla

10. Jammu and Kashmir High Court: –

Established in the year 1928 by Letters Patent issued by the Maharaja of Kashmir.

Jurisdiction: – Jammu and Kashmir, Principle Bench: – Kashmir/ Jammu.

11. Jharkhand High Court: –

Established in the year 2000 by the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000.

Jurisdiction: – Jharkhand, Principle Seat: – Ranchi

12. Karnataka High Court: –

Established in the year 1884 by the Mysore High Court Act 1884.

Jurisdiction: – Karnataka, Principle Seat- Bengaluru, Bench- Dharwad, Gulbarga

Originally named as Mysore High Court remanded in the year 1974.

13. Kerala High Court: –

Established in the year 1956 by the state reorganization act, 1956.

Jurisdiction: – Kerala and Lakswadeep, principle Seat- Kochi.

14. Madhya Pradesh High Court: –

Established in 1936 by the Government of India Act, 1935.

Jurisdiction- Madhya Pradesh, Principal Seat- Jabalpur, Bench- Indore, Gwalior.

By the Government of India Act, 1935, a High Court initially was established at Nagpur for the central  Provinces by Letters Patent in 1936. After the reorganization of states, this High Court was moved to Jabalpur in the year 1956.

15. Madras High Court: –

Established in the year 1862 by the Indian High Courts Act, 1861

Jurisdiction- Tamilnadu and Pondicherry, Principle Seat- Chennai, Bench- Madurai

16. Manipur High Court:-

Established in the year 2013 by North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012.

Jurisdiction- Manipur, Principle Seat- Imphal

17. Meghalaya High Court:-

Established in the year 2013 by North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012.

Jurisdiction- Meghalaya, Principle Seat- Shilong.

18. Odisha High Court: –

Established in the year 1948 by Odhisha Ordinance High Court, 1948.

Jurisdiction- Odhisha, Principle Seat- Cuttuck

19. Patna High Court: –

Established in the year 1916 by Letters Patent issued by the British Crown.

Jurisdiction- Bihar, Principle Seat- Patna

20. Punjab and Haryana High court:-

Established in the year 1947 by Punjab High Court Ordinance, 1947.

Jurisdiction- Chandigarh, Haryana, Punjab. Principle Seat- Chandigarh.

Originally Called as High Court of Punjab and it was renamed as Punjab and Haryana High Court in the year1966.

21. Rajasthan High Court: –

Established in the year 1949 by Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949.

Jurisdiction- Rajasthan, Principal Seat- Jodhpur, Bench- Jaipur

22. Sikkim High Court: –

Established in the year 1975 by 36th amendment act.

Jurisdiction- Sikkim, Principle Seat- Gangtok

23. Telangana High Court: –

Established in the year 1920 by Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014.

Jurisdiction- Telangana, Principle Seat- Hyderabad

24. Tripura High Court: –

Established in the year 2013 by North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012.

Jurisdiction- Tripura, Principle Seat- Agartala.

25. Uttarakhand High Court: –

Established in the year 2000 by Uttar Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2000

Jurisdiction- Uttarakhand, Principle Seat- Nainital

There are mainly five types of Court that run Under the High Court named District Courts, District pontiff Courts, Courts of Judicial Magistrate First Class, Courts of Judicial Magistrate of second class and E courts which started recently in the year 2016 in Hyderabad.

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by Ketan Srivastava

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