Introduction To Criminal Investigation Department
Contrary to popular belief, CID or the Criminal Investigation Department is a real and existing department within the Indian Police forces. However, it is not as dramatic as its media counterpart. The Criminal Investigation Department of a state serves as the intelligence or investigation wing for the respective state police forces. Moreover, It aids the police in dealing with certain types of cases. In short, it is an advanced version of the State Police Department. As said above, intelligence and investigation are two core function of any CID in a state.
Functions of CID
As codified in Section – 410 of the Jharkhand/Bihar Police Manual; CID has several functions to execute. Such functions are distinct as of the Police Department’s function. Following are the functions of CID:-
- The collection of distribution of information relating to professional cases and classes of crime detailed below:-
- highway, railway or mail robbery;
- counterfeiting coin or stamps, forging notes, uttering of being in possession of counterfeit coins or stamps or forged notes;
- drugging of poisoning by professional poisoners;
- action against criminal gangs such as cases, under section 400 and 401, IPC and proceedings under sections 109 and 110, Cr.P.C.
- professional criminals whose operations extend beyond the limits of a single district;
- Such crimes about whom Inspector-General gives special orders.
- To control, advise or assists as circumstances require, in inquiries or investigations into crimes mentioned above. Moreover, in serious crimes where local authority seeks the help of CID with the approval of inspector general or Government of the state. Also, CID helps to inquire about the movements of foreign criminals and about such matters in which local police asks for help.
- In cases where crime includes forgery of telegraphic of railway receipts, postal frauds, the movements of foreign criminals and the like, the assistance of the department may be invoked or directed.
Investigating Squads and Offices
- CID sets up Specialized squads for investigation of cases. Officers in every squad investigate the cases connected with squads. The squads shall be of following types:-
- Cheating and defalcation squad.
- Forged note and counterfeiting squad.
- Murder squad.
- Railway Crime squad (see Rule 680)
- Eve teasing prevention squad
- To do the work efficiently, the department requires certain types of offices. Whereas, such offices help in deducing the collected data to reach the conclusion. The following offices are attached to the department:–
- Finger Print Bureau (Chapter 16),
- Laboratory ( Appendix 25),
- Photo Bureau ( Appendix 22),
- Dog Squad ( Appendix 83) whose branches can be set up in other districts also,
- Missing Persons Bureau ( Appendix 81), and
- Juvenile Aid Bureau ( Appendix 82)
Powers of CID
In the dynamic environment, people are developing with every second passing. And they always come up with a new way of crime. For example, Advancement in technology resulted in Cyber Crime. Nevertheless, technology helps in achieving goals which were impossible earlier. Hence, it directly results in an increase in the complexity of crime and working conditions. Apart from all the functions of the Criminal Investigation Department, certain other powers are provided. Such powers of the Criminal Investigation Department are as follows:-
- CID has the power to investigate, detect, and prosecute certain types of cases. Such cases are entrusted by the Government and Deputy General of Police.
- It can conduct inquiries as per laid down procedure in prescribed situations i.e Civil or Criminal procedure code of India.
- CID maintains data, updates crime and criminal information system. They also plan and organize criminal intelligence system. Moreover, they have also the power of maintaining records.
- CID coordinates the investigation of related matters in the State with other States and National Institutions/Organizations. It also deals with crime investigation and maintenance of crime & criminal records.
- Efficient, professional and independent functioning of SCRB ( State Crime Record Bureau), FPB (Finger Print Bureau) and their modernization.
- In certain cases, CID advise, assist and report to Deputy General of Police and Government regarding the matters concerning investigation and prosecution.
- CID gives information to Parliament and Assembly regarding crime on behalf of State Police. However, except that information which is purely administrative in nature.
- In cases relating to Human trafficking, CID launches rescue operations and attend to post-rescue victim care and protection in coordination with the NGOs.
- Maintains Database in r/o cases under trial, court disposals and court orders.
- Also, they Examine and report on judgments given by subordinate courts for filing appeals.
With all the discussion above, we can say that CID is an important part of the state. However, its work is mostly behind the scenes. The functions of CID are as important as of the police department. However, in certain areas, where the police department has no authority, CID has the authority to control. Also, the power to maintain records of serious crime-criminal is a distinct feature of CID.